www.ymparisto.fi
 
 
Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)
 


21.11.2019

Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals


Chemical
Mercury
CAS-number :
7439-97-6
 
Synonyms :
(mercuric ion.)
elohopea
Hg
 
Sumformula of the chemical :
Hg
EINECS-number :
2311067
 
Molecular weight :
200.61
 
Density, kg/m3 :
13595  0 °C
 
Vapor pressure, mmHg :
0.0012 
 
Water solubility, mg/l :
60  20 °C
 
Melting point, °C :
-38.86 
 
Boiling point, °C :
357.3 
 
Mobility :
Transformation to methylmercury is the most important part of Hg
cycle in the environment. 
Hg is strongly bound to organic
matter is soil and sediment. - 
Inorganic Hg compounds are
methylized abiotically in the presence of methylcobalamine
(B12-CH3) and biotically with help of enzymes
(Hg2+ -> CH3Hg+ + /(CH3)2Hg) (Kaiser & Tölg 1980).
 
Other information of degradation :
Organic Hg compounds kan be formed and break up chemically,
biochemically and through photosynthesis as well in atmosphere
as in aquatic environment: CH3Hg+ <-> (CH3)2Hg <-> Hg <-> Hg2+
(Anon 1989).
 
Metabolism in mammals :
Inorganic Hg is mainly stored in kidneys (WHO 1976).

Organic Hg compounds decompose to inorganic Hg and accumulates in
kidneys (WHO 1976).

Methylmercury is absorbed in alimentary canal 90 - 100 %
after intake with food, whereas inorganic Hg is absorbed less
than 15 % (WHO 1976).

Brains seem to be very sensitive to methylmercury and for Hg
vapour  (Berlin 1986).

Methylmercury is very slowly decombosed mainly through
faeces (Berlin 1986).
 
Bioconcentration factor, fishes :
1-6, fish, Perwak et al. 1985
 
LD50 values to mammals in oral exposure, mg/kg :
500  orl-rat, inorg.Hg, Kaiser & Tölg 1980
 
LC50 values to mammals in inhalation exposure, mg/m3 :
29  30hr,ihl-rbt, Lewis & Sweet 1984
 
TCLo values to mammals in inhalation exposure, mg/kg :
0.15  46d, ihl-wmn, Lewis & Sweet 1984
 
Effects on physiology of mammals :
Cat, inhalation, > 0.010 mg/m3 Hg vapor in air, effects on
reflexes (Nordberg 1981).

Rat, inhalation, NOEC, 0.003 mg/m3, Hg vapor (Nordberg 1981).
 
Other information of mammals :
Toxic when 5 mg/kg in brains and in muscles of mink. 
Harp seal 
was killed at 25 mg/kg in 20 - 26 days (Virtanen & Nuuja 1987).
 
Health effects :
Inorganic bivalent Hg compounds and unstabile organic Hg
compounds induce damages in kidneys (Berlin 1986).

Methylmercury has effects on the central nervous system -
motoric and mental disorders etc. 
(Berlin 1986).
 
Carcinogenicity :
Classification: Group D: not enough evidence in animal
experiments (USEPA 1986).
 
Mutagenicity :
Drosophila: slight mutagenicity (Perwak et al. 1985).
 
Teratogenicity :
Teratogenic effects on fish and birds (Leonard et al. 1983).
 
Effects on amphibia :
LC50 0.051 ppm, 96hr, tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla (Khangarot et
al. 1985).
 
Effects on plants :
The 4-leaf stage plants (Pennisetum typhoideum, Medicago
sativa, Abelmoschus esculentum) were grown for 24 hours in
Knop's nutrient solution mixed with a known concentration
(1ppb, 10 ppb,...) of Hg solutions (HgCl2). 
Subtle damage in
terms of reduced chlorophyll content and reduction in standing
phytomass of the plants was observed at 1 ppb and visible
foliar symptoms at 10 ppb (Mhatre & Chaphekar 1984).

When the roots of onion bulbs had reached a length of about 15
mm the bulbs were transferred to glas jars containing the
experimental solution, where they were kept for 72 hours:
                     Lowest lethal dose for Allium cepa roots
1.Panogen 5            0.00125 mol/l (250 ppm Hg)
2.Panogen 8            0.00032 mol/l (64  ppm Hg)
3.Methyl mercury dicyanidamide 0.00025 mol/l (50 ppm Hg)
4.Methyl mercury hydroxide     0.00025 (50 ppm Hg)

                           Lowest C-mitotic dose
1.                      0.00000025 mol/l (0.05 ppm Hg)
2.                      0.00000080 mol/l (0.16 ppm Hg)
3.                      0.00000060 mol/l (0.13 ppm Hg)
4.                      0.00000025 mol/l (0.05 ppm Hg)
5.Phenyl mercury hydroxide 0.00000080 mol/l (0.16 ppm Hg)
6.Methoxyethyl mercury chloride 0.00000314 mol/l (0.63 ppm Hg)
(Ramel 1969).
 
LC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.65  Hg(II),48hr,mbt, Asellus aquaticus
0.199  Hg(II),96hr,mbt, Asellus aquaticus
  Martin & Holdich 1986
  --
0.013  21d, Daphnia magna
0.005  48hr, without food, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
  --
0.15  Hg(II), 96hr, Gammarus duebeni
  Inman & Lockwood 1977
  --
0.12  Hg(II), 96hr, Gammarus duebeni
  Moulder 1980
  --
0.03  0.03 - 0.10, Hg(II), Gammarus
  Jung 1975
  --
0.006  0.006-0.020, 48hr, Daphnia magna
0.02  Barera & Adams 1983
 
EC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.006  0.006 - 0.02, 48hr, Daphnia magna
0.02  Barera & Adams 1983
  --
0.0052  48hr, mbt, Daphnia magna
  Khangarot & Ray 1987
  --
0.0067  21d, rpd, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
 
LOEC values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.0034  21d, rpd, Daphnia magna, HgCl2,
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
 
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
0.16  96hr, Lepomis macrochirus
  Holcombe et al. 1983
  --
0.9  96hr, Channa punctata
  Saxena & Parashari 1983
  --
0.0078  0.0078 - 0.134, 96hr, Barbus conchonius
0.134  Gill & Pant 1981
  --
0.168  96hr, Pimephales promelas
  Snarski & Olson 1982
  --
0.005  28 d, Salmo gairdneri
  Birge et al. 1980
 
LOEC values to fishes, mg/l :
0.00026  rpd, grw, chr, Pimephales promelas
  Snarski & Olson 1982
 
Other information of water organisms :
LC50 0.36 mg/l, 96hr, Aplexa hypnorum (Holcombe et al. 1983). 
LC50 0.023 mg/l, 96hr, Lymnea acuminata (Khangarot et al. 1982).

LC50 0.16 mg/l, 96hr, Nais communis; LC50 0.29 mg/l, 96hr,
Ilyodrilus frantzi (Chapman & Mitshell 1986).

References
1790Ahsanullah, M. 1976. Acute toxicity of cadmium and zinc to seven invertebrate species from Western Port, Victoria. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 27: 87 - 96.
2285Anon. 1989. Miljöfarliga ämnen - exempellista och vetenskaplig dokumentation. 303 p. Stockholm. Rapport från kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI) 10.
2834Berlin, M. 1986. Mercury. In: Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Vol. II, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 387 - 445.
139Biesinger, K.E. & Christensen, G.M. 1972. Effects of various metals on survival, growth, reproduction, and metabolism of Daphnia magna. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 1691 - 1700.
149Birge, W.J. et al. 1980. Aquatic toxicity tests on inorganic elements occuring in oil shale. EPA 600/9-80-022. NTIS, Dep. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.
1788Chapman, P.M. & Mitchell, D.G. 1986. Acute tolerance tests with the oligochaetes Nais communis (Naididae) and Ilyodrilus frantzi (Tubificidae). Hydrobiologia 137: 61 - 64.
480Gill, T.S. & Pant, J.C. 1981. Effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury in a Teleost Puntius conchonius. Biochemical and haematological responses. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (Ind.) 19: 571.
594Holcombe, G.W., Phipps, G.L. & Fiandt, J.T. 1983. Toxicity of selected priority pollutants to various aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 8(2): 106 - 117.
1791Inham, C.B.E. & Lockwood, A.P.M. 1977. Some effects of methylmercury and lindane on sodium regulation in the amphipod Gammarus duebeni during changes in the salinity of its medium. Comp. Biochem. Phys. 58A: 67 - 75.
1794Jones, M.B. 1973. The influence of saline and temperature on the toxicity of mercury to marine and brackish water isopods (Crustacea). Estuar. Coast. mar. Sci. 1: 425 - 431.
1793Jung, K.D. 1975. Etude bibliographique de la sensibilite des crustaces utilises (Daphnie, Gammare, Artemia) vis a vis des produits chemiques. Tribune de Cebedeau 28: 301 - 303.
2828Kaiser, G. & Tölg, G. 1980. Mercury. Hutzinger, O. (Ed.) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry: Anthropogenic Compounds, Vol. 3, Part A.
715Khangarot, B.S. et al. 1982. Comparative toxicity of heavy metals and interaction of metals on a freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck). Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 10: 367.
1767Khangarot, B.S., Sehgal, A. & Bhasin, E.K. 1985. Man and biosphere - Studies on the Sikkim Himalayas. Part 5: Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. Acta hydrochim. et hydrobiol. 13(2): 259 - 263.
1768Khangarot, B.S., Sehgal, A. & Bhasin, M.K. 1985. Man and Biosphere - Studies on the Sikkim Himalayas. Part 6: Toxicity of selected pesticides to frog tadpole Rana hexadactyla (Lesson). Acta hydrochim. hydrobiol. 13(3): 391 - 394.
2838Leonard, A., Jacquet, P. & Lauwerys, R.R. 1983. Mutat. Res. 114: 1.
1589Lewis, R.J. & Sweet, D.V. 1984. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. No. 83-107-4.
1763Martin, T.R. & Holdich, D.M. 1986. The acute lethal toxicity of heavy metals to peracarid crustaceans (with particular reference to fresh-water asellids and gammarids). Water Res. 20(9): 1137 - 1147.
1723Mhatre, G.N. & Chaphekar, S.B. 1984. Response of young plants to mercury. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 21: 1 - 8.
1792Moulder, S.M. 1980. Combined effect of the chlorides of mercury and copper in sea water on the euryhaline amphipod, Gammarus duebeni. Mar. Biol. Berlin 59: 193 - 200.
2837Nordberg, G.F. 1981. Kvicksilver från hälsosynpunkt. Projekt Kol-Hälsa-Miljö, Rapport 192.
2829Perwak, J., Goyer, M., Nelken, L., Scow, K., Wald, M. & Wallace, D. 1985. An Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mercury. EPA 4404-85-011.
1973Pilli.A., Carle, D.O., Kline. E., Pickering. Q. & Lazorchak. J. 1988. Effets of pollution on freshwater organisms. JWPCF 60(6): 994 - 1065.
1724Ramel, C. 1969. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds I. Cytological investigations on Allium roots. Hereditas 61: 208 - 230.
1235Saxena, O.P. & Parashari, A. 1983. Comparative study of the toxicity of six heavy metals to Channa punctatus. J. Environ. Biol. 4: 91.
1320Snarski, V.M. & Olson, G.F. 1982. Chronic toxicity and bioaccumulation of mercuric chloride in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Aquat. Toxicol. 2: 143 - 156.
2744USEPA 1986a. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed. Reg. 51(185): 33992 - 34003, September 24.
1771Virtanen, M. & Nuuja, I. 1987. Kemikaalien myrkyllisyys luonnonvaraisille nisäkkäille. Ympäristöministeriö. Ympäristön- ja luonnonsuojeluosasto. Sarja D: 26.
2833WHO 1976. Mercury. Environmental Health Criteria 1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

 
 
© Copyright Environmental Administration