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Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)
 


9.12.2019

Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals


Chemical
Toxaphene *
CAS-number :
8001-35-2
 
Synonyms :
camphechlor.
Toksafeeni
Toxaphene
 
Sumformula of the chemical :
C10H10Cl8 * on an average
EINECS-number :
2322833
 
Uses :
Pesticide, insecticide (on cotton crops)
 
State and appearance :
Amber, waxy solid.
 
Odor :
Mild odor of chlorine and camphor.
 
Molecular weight :
413.8
 
Water solubility, mg/l :
0.5  0.5 - 3, 25 °C,
 
Melting point, °C :
65  65 - 90
90 
 
Log octanol/water coefficient, log Pow :
3.3  Anon. 1989
5.5  Anon. 1989
 
Henry's law constant, Pa x m3/mol :
0.42  20 °C
 
Half-life in soil, days :
900  Li et al. 1990
  --
730  20 years, Ware 1988
 
Aerobic degradation in water :
Persistent in surface water (Ware 1988).

Persistent in an oligotrophic lake for 6 years.

(Terriere et al. 1966).
 
Other information of degradation :
Degrades in UV-light and in high temperatures (WHO 1984).
 
Metabolism in mammals :
Absorbed through skin,lungs and alimentary canal. 
Is
metabolized quickly, half-life in rat < 1 week, through
dechlorination and oxidation and is excreted with urine, 
feces and milk (Ware 1988).
 
Bioconcentration factor, fishes :
3100  3100 - 91000,
91000  Verschueren 1983
  --
70000  70000 - 107000, 150d, Pimephales
107000  promelas, Verschueren 1983
  --
91000  Ictalurus, juv, NCI 1979
 
Other information of bioaccumulation :
Bioconcentration factor (mollusca):
2920-15200, 96hr (Verschueren 1983).
9000-15200, oyster (Schimmel et al. 1977).
  
Bioconcentration factor (crustaceans):
400 - 1200, 96 hr (Verschueren 1983)
800-1200, shrimp (Schimmel et al. 1977)
 
LD50 values to mammals in oral exposure, mg/kg :
40  orl-rat, Lewis & Sweet 1984
15  orl-dog, - " -
  --
60  orl-man, IUPAC 1979
 
LD50 values to mammals in non-oral exposure , mg/kg :
600  skn-rat, Lewis & Sweet 1984
  --
60  60 - 90, ukn-rat, Virtanen & Nuuja 1987
90 
270  ukn-gpg
75  75 - 100, ukn-rbt
100 
20  20 - 30, ukn-dog
30 
 
LDLo values to mammals in oral exposure, mg/kg :
40  orl-hmn, Lewis & Sweet 1984
 
Effects on physiology of mammals :
Dog, injuries in kidneys, LOEL, 4 mg/kg/d;
rat, injuries in liver, LOEL, 1.25 mg/kg/d 
(Ware 1988).
 
Health effects :
Convulsions in human at 10 mg/kg 
(Virtanen & Nuuja 1987).

Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption; most uses 
prohibited (Sax & Lewis 1987).

USA, acceptable daily intake for human (ADI): 0.00125 mg/kg 
(NAS 1977).
 
Carcinogenicity :
NCI carcinogenesis bioassay completed: results positive: mus;
results indefinite, rat (Lewis & Sweet 1984).
 
Mutagenicity :
Positive in Ames test (Ware 1988).
 
LD50 values to birds in oral exposure, mg/kg :
31  orl-dck, Lewis & Sweet 1984
 
Effects on bees :
LD50, 48 hr, 0.000144 mg/bee (Torchio 1973).
 
EC50 values to algae, mg/l :
0.01  10d, Phaeodactylum, Verschueren 1983
  --
0.38  Selenastrum, USEPA 1980
 
LOEC values to algae, mg/l :
0.01  rpd, schr, Phaedactylum tricornutum
  Walsh 1972
 
LC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.015  48hr, Daphnia magna, Sanders & Cope
  1966, Frear & Boyd 1967
  --
0.0000072  96hr, Acartia tonsa,
  Khattat & Farley 1976
  --
0.006  96hr, Gammarus fasciatus,Sanders 1972
  --
0.01  48hr, Simocephalus serrulatus
  Verschueren 1983
  --
0.0014  96hr, Penaeus duorarum
  Schimmel et al. 1977
  --
0.015  act, Daphnia pulex, Kenaga 1979
 
EC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.016  96hr, Crassostrea, Shimmel et al. 1977
 
NOEC values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.00007  21d, Daphnia magna, Sanders 1980
 
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
0.008  96hr, Salmo gairdneri, Edwards 1977
0.004  96hr, Lepomis macrochirus
  --
0.0011  96hr, Cyprinodon,
0.0005  96hr, Lagodon rhomboides,
  Schimmel et al. 1977
  --
0.0055  96hr, Salmo gairdneri,
0.003  96hr, Salmo trutta m. lacustris,
0.012  96hr, Perca fluviatilis,
  Macek & McAllister 1970
  --
0.018  act, Lepomis macrochirus,
0.011  act, Salmo gairdneri,
0.014  act, Pimephales promelas, Kenaga 1979
  --
0.0024  96hr, Lepomis, LeBlanc 1984
  --
0.0005  144hr, Leiostomus, Lowe 1964
  --
0.0054  96h, Morone saxatilis juv., soft water
0.0076  96h, Morone saxatilis, 1%. saline water
  Palawaski et al. 1985
 
LOEC values to fishes, mg/l :
0.0003  grw, srv, schr, Ictalurus punctatus
0.000054  grw, schr, Pimephales promelas
  Mayer et al. 1977
 
NOEC values to fishes, mg/l :
0.00013  grw, srv, schr, Ictalurus punctatus
0.000025  grw, schr, Pimephales promelas
  Mayer et al. 1977
 
Other information of water organisms :
MATC:
259d, Pimephales, 0.000025 - 0.000054; 
240d, Ictalurus, 0.00013 - 0.0003 mg/l (Mayer et al. 1977).

References
2941Andersson, Ö., Linder, C.-E., Olsson, M., Reutergårdh, L., Uvemo, U.-B. & Wideqvist, U. 1988. Spatial differences and temporal trends of organochlorine compounds in biota from the northwestern hemisphere. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17: 755 - 765.
2285Anon. 1989. Miljöfarliga ämnen - exempellista och vetenskaplig dokumentation. 303 p. Stockholm. Rapport från kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI) 10.
377Edwards, C.A. 1977. Nature and origins of pollution of aquatic systems by pesticides. In: Pesticides in Aquatic Environments. M.A. Q. Khan, (ed.) Plenum Press, N.Y.
447Frear, D.E.H. & Boyd, J.E. 1967. Use of Daphnia magna for microbioassay of pesticides, I.J.Econom. Entomol. 60: 1228 - 1238.
2950IUPAC 1979. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC reports on pesticides, Vol. 7. Toxaphene (camphechlor). A special report. Pure Appl. Chem. 51: 1583 - 1601.
705Kenaga, E.E. 1979. Acute and chronic toxicity of 75 pesticides to various animal species. Down to earth 35(2): 25 - 31.
716Khattat, F.H. & Farley, S. 1976. Acute toxicity of certain pesticides to Acartiatonsa dana. Environmental Protection Agency Final Report, EPA-68/01/0151.
799LeBlanc, G.A. 1984. Interspecies relationships in acute toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 3: 47 -60.
1589Lewis, R.J. & Sweet, D.V. 1984. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. No. 83-107-4.
2450Li, W.,Merrill, D. E. & Haith, A. 1990. Loading functions for pesticide runoff. Research Journal WPCF, 62(1): pp. 16 - 26.
2949Lowe, J.I. 1964. Chronic exposure of spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, to sublethal concentrations of toxaphene in sea water. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 93: 396 - 399.
869Macek, K.J. & McAllister, W.A. 1970. Insecticide susceptibility of some common fish family representatives. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 99(1): 20 - 27.
908Mayer, F.L., Mehrle, P.M. & Sanders, H.O. 1977. Residue dynamics and biological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls in aquatic organisms. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 5: 501 - 511.
907Mayer, F.L., Mehrle, P.W. & Dwyer, W.P. 1977. Toxaphene: chronic toxicity to fathead minnows and channel catfish. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, EPA 600-3-77-069, 38 pp.
948Mehrle, P.M. & Mayer, F.L. 1975. Toxaphene effects on growth and development of brook trout. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32: 609 - 613.
2946Mehrle, P.M. & Mayer, F.L. 1975. Toxaphene effects on growth and bone composition of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 32 (5): 593 - 598.
2945Mehrle, P.M. & Mayer, F.L. 1977. Bone development and growth of fish as affected by toxaphene. In: Suffet, I.H. (Ed.) Fate of Pollutants in Air and Water Environments - Part 2, Wiley-Interscience, New York, N.Y., p. 301.
2952NAS 1977. National Academy of Sciences. Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 1. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
2947NCI 1979. U.S. Dept. of. H.E.W., National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Report on carcinogenis bioassay of toxaphene. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Ass. J. 40 (5): A26 - A23.
1769Palawski, D., Hunn, J.B. & Dwyer, F.J. 1985. Sensitivity of young striped bass to organic and inorganic contaminants in fresh and saline waters. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114: 748 - 753.
1225Sanders, H.O. & Cope, O.B. 1966. Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of cladocerans. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 95: 165 - 169.
1223Sanders, H.O. 1972. The toxicities of some insecticides to four species of malocostracan crustacea. Fish Pesticide Res. Lab. Columbia, Mo., Bureau of Sport Fish and Wildlife.
1224Sanders, H.O. 1980. Sublethal effects of toxaphene on daphnids, scuds, and midges. Ecol. Res. Ser., EPA-600/3-80-006. 25pp.
1241Schimmel, S.C., Patrick Jr, J.M. & Forester, J. 1977b. Uptake and toxicity of toxaphene in several estuarine organisms. J. Toxicol. Environm. Health. 1: 955 - 965.
2944Terriere, L.C., Kiigemagi, U., Gerlach, A.R. & Borovicka, R.L. 1966. The persistence of toxaphene in lake water and its uptake by aquatic plants and animals. J. Agr. Food Chem. 14: 66 - 69.
2951Torchio, P.F. 1973. Relative toxicity of insectides to the honey bee, alkali bee and alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46: 446 - 453.
2948USEPA 1980. Ambient water quality criteria for toxaphene. USEPA, Report EPA-440/5-80-076, Washington, D.C.
1468Verschueren, K. 1983. Handbook of environmental data of organic chemicals. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc., New York. 1310 s.
1771Virtanen, M. & Nuuja, I. 1987. Kemikaalien myrkyllisyys luonnonvaraisille nisäkkäille. Ympäristöministeriö. Ympäristön- ja luonnonsuojeluosasto. Sarja D: 26.
1500Walsh, G.E. 1972. Effects of herbicides on photosynthesis and growth of marine unicellular algae. Hyacinth Control J. 10: 45 - 48.
2943Ware, G.W. (Ed.) 1988. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 104. Springer Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 203 - 213.
2942WHO 1984. Camphechlor. Environmental Health Criteria 45, WHO, Geneva, 66 p.

 
 
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