Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)


Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals

CAS-number :
Synonyms :
Sumformula of the chemical :
EINECS-number :
Molecular weight :
Mobility :
Chromium is normally in three (as kation) or six (as anion)
valent forms in soil and water. 
In soil Cr3+ is precipitated
even in acid environment (pH 5,5). 
CrVI compounds are unstable
both in acid and alkaline soils. 
With precense of organic
matter CrVI reduces to Cr3+ (Kabata-Pendias & Pendias 1984).

In water CrVI is often dominating the soluble fraction as well in
oceans and in running water. 
Cr3+ dominates when organic
matter is available. 
CrVI is therefore rare in municipal
effluents (Balsberg-Påhlsson et al. 1982).
Metabolism in mammals :
Metabolism in mammals is not quite clear (USEPA 1985).

Experiments with animals has shown that that Cr3+ salts are not
easily absorped in oral intake. 
Excretes mostly with urine
(Kraintz & Talmage 1952).
Other information of bioaccumulation :
Cr in fish concentrates in gills, kidneys, liver, gall and
spleen (Balsberg-Påhlsson et al. 1982).

CrVI is taken up easier than Cr3+. 
In cells CrVI is reduced to
Cr3+ (Taylor et al. 1979).

Cr taken up with food is more important than Cr taken up with
water to all aquatic animals except crustacean and fry.

Accumulation decreases with growing trophic level (Baptist &
Lewis 1969).
Other information of mammals :
CrVI has most extended harmful effects. 
Exposure at low levels
in mammals has induced effects in respiratory tract, such as
bronchitis, pneumonia and tumours (WHO 1988).

Rat, inhalation 28 d / 90 d, changes in lungs: 0.006 - 0.2
mg/m3 (Glaser et al. 1985).
Carcinogenicity :
Cr3+ considered not carcinogenic. 
CrVI salts are carcinogenic
in epidemiologic tests (WHO 1988).

Cr och certain Cr compounds, exposure via inhalation:
Group 1, adequate proof for carcinogenicity to mammals and
humans (IARC 1982); EPA Guidelines - group A, carcinogenic to
humans (USEPA 1986).
Mutagenicity :
Negative for Cr3+ (WHO 1988).

CrVI salts are mutagenic to mammals in vivo and in vitro (WHO
Teratogenicity :
No teratogenic effects in humans have been indicated (WHO 1988)
LC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
21d, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
0.022  48hr, Daphnia magna, AQUIRE 1994
EC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.6  21d, rpd, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christenseb 1972
LOEC values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.33  21d, rpd, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
17  96hr, Lepomis gibbosus, AQUIRE 1994

2285Anon. 1989. Miljöfarliga ämnen - exempellista och vetenskaplig dokumentation. 303 p. Stockholm. Rapport från kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI) 10.
3107AQUIRE 1993 -. Aquatic Toxity Information Retrieval Database. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, D.C.
2814Babtist, J.P. & Lewis, C.W. 1969. Transfer of Zn-65 and Cr-51 through an estuarine food chain. Symposium of radioecology: 420 - 425.
2812Bahlsberg-Påhlsson, A.-M., Lithner, G. & Tyler, G. 1982. Krom i miljön. SNV PM 1570.
139Biesinger, K.E. & Christensen, G.M. 1972. Effects of various metals on survival, growth, reproduction, and metabolism of Daphnia magna. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 1691 - 1700.
2817Glaser, U., Hochrainer, D., Kloppel, H. & Kuhnen, H. 1985. Low-level chromium VI inhalation effects on alveolar macrophages and immune functions in Wistar rats. Arch. Toxicol. 57: 250 - 256.
2727IARC 1982. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Suppl. 4: 133 - 135.
2541Kabata-Pendias, A. & Pendias, H. 1984. Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida.
2816Kraintz, L. & Talmage, R.V. 1952. Distribution of radioactivity following intravenous administration of trivalent chromium-51 in the rat and rabbit. Pric. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 81: 490 - 492.
2813Taylor, M.C., Reeder, S.W. & Demayo, A. 1979. Guidelines for Surface Water Quality, I. Inorganic Chemical Substances. Chromium. Inland Waters Directorate, Water Quality Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
2815USEPA 1985. Health Effects Criteria Document for Chromium. USEPA Criteria and Standards Dividion (CSD), Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, D.C.
2744USEPA 1986a. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed. Reg. 51(185): 33992 - 34003, September 24.
2577WHO 1988. Chromium, Environmental Health Criteria 61, WHO, Geneva.

© Copyright Environmental Administration