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Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)
 


18.4.2021

Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals


Chemical
Glyphosate
CAS-number :
1071-83-6
 
Synonyms :
glyfosaatti
N-(phoshonomethyl)glycine
 
Sumformula of the chemical :
C3H8NO5P
 
Uses :
Active ingredient in herbicides.
 
Molecular weight :
169.09
 
Vapor pressure, mmHg :
0.0000001  at 25°C, exact 0.000000075 mmHg, KEMI 1990
 
Water solubility, mg/l :
12000  at 25°C, KEMI 1990
 
pKa :
2.3  pKa1
5.6  pKa2
10.3  pKa3, KEMI 1990
 
Log octanol/water coefficient, log Pow :
-3  KEMI 1990
 
Adsorption/desorption :
Glyphosate was bound tightly to soil. 
Adsorption depends on
concentration of unbound unorganic phosphorous. 
The higher is
concetration the worse adsorption (KEMI 1990).
 
Mobility :
The leaching of glyphosate was low on the study of soil
thin-layer plates. 
The degradationproduct aminomethylphosphoric
acid has more mobile than glyphosate.

Koc: 300 - 11 000, Rf: 0.04 - 0.2 (KEMI 1990).
 
Other physicochemical properties :
Decomposes at 200°C (KEMI 1990).
 
Photochemical degradation in soil :
Photolysis half-life of glyphosate was about 3 - 4 weeks and
little longer for the degradation product, aminomethylphosphoric
acid (AMPA) (KEMI 1990).
 
Hydrolysis in water :
Glyphosate is relative stable in hydrolysis but
degradationproduct aminomethylphosphoric acid is hydrolysed
quicly (KEMI 1990).
 
Total degradation in soil :
Degradation of glyphosate in soil is most part microbiprocess.

The half-life varies from couple days to several years
depending on the microbiactivity in soil. 
Degradation of
degradationproduct aminomethylphosphoric acid is more slowly
(KEMI 1990).
 
Total degradation in water :
Degradation is quickliest in water where is high
microbiactivity and low pH. 
The half-life is 7 weeks at pH 4.2
(KEMI 1990).
 
Degradation and transformation products :
Aminomethylphosphoric acid (AMPA) * major degradationproduct
(KEMI 1990).
 
LD50 values to mammals in oral exposure, mg/kg :
470  orl-rat, Lewis & Sweet 1984
1568  orl-mus, - " -
  --
3800  3800 - 4320, orl-rbt, orl-rat
4320  KEMI 1990
 
LD50 values to mammals in non-oral exposure , mg/kg :
5000  >5000, idr-rbt, KEMI 1990
 
LC50 values to mammals in inhalation exposure, mg/m3 :
8000  >8 mg/l, ihl-rat, KEMI 1990
 
Effects on bees :
LD50 (48hr): >100ug/bee (KEMI 1990).
 
Effects on plants :
13-day-old common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvaticum) plants
were treated with 15 ug glyphosate applied as droplets to the
lowermost tru leaves -> growth was inhibited rapidly following
treatment; transport of P from roots to the aerial tissues was
severely inhibited (Nafzigen & Slife 1983).
 
EC50 values to algae, mg/l :
1.3  96hr, Skeletonema costatum, Anon 1984
  --
1.2  96hr, Skeletonema costatum, KEMI 1990
 
LC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
780  48 hr, Daphnia magna, Anon. 1984
  --
5.3  48 hr, Daphnia magna (roundup), Anon.
  1984
  --
48 hr, water flea (roundup), Folmar et
  al. 1979
 
EC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
780  24hr, Daphnia magna, KEMI 1990
 
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
52  52 - 55, 96hr, Salmo gairdneri
55  Hildebrand et al. 1982
  --
15  96hr, Ctenopharyngodon idella
  Tooby et al. 1980
  --
140  140 - 220, 96hr, Lepomis macrochirus
220 
97  96hr, Pimephales promelas
130  96hr, Ictalurus punctatus
140  24hr, technical glyphosate, S. gairdneri
2.1  24hr, surfactant, S. gairdneri
140  140 - 240, 96hr, Salmo gairdneri
240 
  Folmar 1979
  --
86  96hr, Salmo gairdneri, Anon. 1984
120  96hr, Lepomis macrochirus
168  96hr, Rasbora heteromorpha
 
Other information of water organisms :
NOEL, 21d, rpd, 50 mg/l, Daphnia magna (KEMI 1990).

LC50, 24hr, 38 - 140 mg/l, fish (KEMI 1990).

EC50, 24hr, mbt, 55 mg/l, mosquito larvae.

LC50, 96hr, 281 - 934 mg/l, crayfish (KEMI 1990).

References
71Anon. 1984. The use of glyphosate in aquatic situations. Aquatic seminar, Louvain-La-Neuve, 21 February 1984. Monsanto.
439Folmar, L.C. 1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch.Environ.Contam. Toxicol. 8: 269
581Hildebrand, L.D. et al. 1982. Experimental studies of rainbow trout populations exposed to field applications of Roundup herbicide. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 11: 93.
3101KEMI 1990 - 1991. Kemikalieinspektionens ämnesblad. Faktablad för verksamma ämnen i bekämpningsmedel avsedda för jordbruk och trädgårdsnäring mm.
1589Lewis, R.J. & Sweet, D.V. 1984. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. No. 83-107-4.
1756Nafziger, E.D. & Slife, F.W. 1983. Physiological response of common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum) to glyphosate. Weed Sci. 31: 874 - 878.
1428Tooby, T.E. et al. 1980. The tolerance of grass carp. Ctenopharyngodon idella val, to aquatic herbicides. J. Fish. Biol. 16: 591.

 
 
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