Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)


Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals

CAS-number :
Synonyms :
chromium(3+) ion.
Sumformula of the chemical :
Molecular weight :
Mobility :
Chromium is normally in three (as kation) or six (as anion)
valent forms in soil and water. 
In soil Cr3+ is precipitated
even in acid environment (pH 5,5). 
CrVI compounds are unstable
both in acid and alkaline soils. 
With precense of organic
matter CrVI reduces to Cr3+ (Kabata-Pendias & Pendias 1984).

In water CrVI is often dominating the soluble fraction as well in
oceans and in running water. 
Cr3+ dominates when organic
matter is available. 
CrVI is therefore rare in municipal
effluents (Balsberg-Påhlsson et al. 1982).
Metabolism in mammals :
Metabolism in mammals is not quite clear (USEPA 1985).

Experiments with animals has shown that that Cr3+ salts are not
easily absorped in oral intake. 
Excretes mostly with urine
(Kraintz & Talmage 1952).
Other information of bioaccumulation :
Cr in fish concentrates in gills, kidneys, liver, gall and
spleen (Balsberg-Påhlsson et al. 1982).

CrVI is taken up easier than Cr3+. 
In cells CrVI is reduced to
Cr3+ (Taylor et al. 1979).

Cr taken up with food is more important than Cr taken up with
water to all aquatic animals except crustacean and fry.

Accumulation decreases with growing trophic level (Baptist &
Lewis 1969).
LD50 values to mammals in oral exposure, mg/kg :
1870  orl-rat, CrCl3, Christensen 1973
600  orl-unk, 600-2600, Cr3+,
2600  Smyth et al. 1969
Other information of mammals :
CrVI has most extended harmful effects. 
Exposure at low levels
in mammals has induced effects in respiratory tract, such as
bronchitis, pneumonia and tumours (WHO 1988).

Rat, inhalation 28 d / 90 d, changes in lungs: 0.006 - 0.2
mg/m3 (Glaser et al. 1985).
Carcinogenicity :
Cr3+ considered not carcinogenic. 
CrVI salts are carcinogenic
in epidemiologic tests (WHO 1988).

Cr och certain Cr compounds, exposure via inhalation:
Group 1, adequate proof for carcinogenicity to mammals and
humans (IARC 1982); EPA Guidelines - group A, carcinogenic to
humans (USEPA 1986).
Mutagenicity :
Negative for Cr3+ (WHO 1988).

CrVI salts are mutagenic to mammals in vivo and in vitro (WHO
Effects on plants :
Two cultivars of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were grown in solution
The 0.0001 M Cr2(SO4)3 resulted in leaf yield reduction
of 83 % (0.022 mg Cr/g in leaf, 0.015 mg Cr/g in stem) and 88 %
(0.019 mg Cr/g in leaf) (Rehab & Wallace 1978c).
LC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
48hr, Daphnia magna, Cr3+,
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
442  96hr, mbt, Asellus aquaticus,
937  48hr, mbt, Asellus aquaticus,
  Martin & Holdich 1986
EC50 values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.6  21d, rpd, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
LOEC values to crustaceans, mg/l :
0.33  rpd, 21d, Daphnia magna
  Biesinger & Christensen 1972
0.5  Palaemonetes pugio, Cr3+,
  Doughtie & Rao 1984
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
4.4  96hr,Salmo gairdneri
  Stevens & Chapman 1984
58.5  96hr, Branchydanio rerio
  Bellavere & Gorbi 1981
LOEC values to fishes, mg/l :
0.089  srv, schr, Salmo gairdneri, Cr3+,
  Stevens & Chapman 1984
Other information of water organisms :
EC0, Chlorella sp., 0.5 mg/l, Cr3+ (Nollendorf et al. 1972).

Salmo salar, rpd, 0.1 - 1 mg/l, Cr3+ (Brånin & Paulsson 1971).

2285Anon. 1989. Miljöfarliga ämnen - exempellista och vetenskaplig dokumentation. 303 p. Stockholm. Rapport från kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI) 10.
2814Babtist, J.P. & Lewis, C.W. 1969. Transfer of Zn-65 and Cr-51 through an estuarine food chain. Symposium of radioecology: 420 - 425.
2812Bahlsberg-Påhlsson, A.-M., Lithner, G. & Tyler, G. 1982. Krom i miljön. SNV PM 1570.
123Bellavere, C. & Gorbi, J. 1981. A comparative analysis of acute toxicity of chromium, copper and cadmium to Daphnia magna, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Brachydanio rerio. Environ. Technol. Lett. 2: 119.
139Biesinger, K.E. & Christensen, G.M. 1972. Effects of various metals on survival, growth, reproduction, and metabolism of Daphnia magna. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 1691 - 1700.
2825Brånin, B. & Paulsson, C. 1971. Långtidsförsök med tungmetaller på de första utvecklingsstadierna hos lax. Laxforskningsinstitutet, meddelande 2: 1971.
2548Christensen, H.E. (Ed.) 1973. The toxic substances list, 1973 edition. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, Maryland, June 1973.
353Doughtie, D.G. & Rao, K.R. 1984. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the antennal gland, midgut, hepatopancreas and gill of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) following exposure to hexavalent chromium. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 43 (1).
2817Glaser, U., Hochrainer, D., Kloppel, H. & Kuhnen, H. 1985. Low-level chromium VI inhalation effects on alveolar macrophages and immune functions in Wistar rats. Arch. Toxicol. 57: 250 - 256.
2727IARC 1982. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Suppl. 4: 133 - 135.
2541Kabata-Pendias, A. & Pendias, H. 1984. Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida.
2816Kraintz, L. & Talmage, R.V. 1952. Distribution of radioactivity following intravenous administration of trivalent chromium-51 in the rat and rabbit. Pric. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 81: 490 - 492.
1763Martin, T.R. & Holdich, D.M. 1986. The acute lethal toxicity of heavy metals to peracarid crustaceans (with particular reference to fresh-water asellids and gammarids). Water Res. 20(9): 1137 - 1147.
2827NIOSH 1983. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), Vol. 2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Washington, D.C.
2818Nollendorf, A., Pakalne, E. & Upitis, V. 1972. Little known trace elements in Chlorella culture. Latv. PSR Zinat. Akad. Vestis (Latvian SSR) 7: 33 - 43 (in Russian).
1601Rehab, F.I. & Wallace, A. 1978a. Excess trace metal effects on cotton. 1. Copper, zinc, cobalt, and manganese in solution culture. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 9(6): 507 - 518.
2826Smyth, H.F., Carpenter, C.P., Weil, C.S., Pozzanni, U.C., Striegel, J.A. & Nycum, J.S. 1969. Range finding toxicity data: List VII. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Ass. J. 30: 470.
1373Stevens, D.G. & Chapman, G.A. 1984. Toxicity of trivalent chromium to early life stages of steelhead trout. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 3(1): 125 - 133.
2813Taylor, M.C., Reeder, S.W. & Demayo, A. 1979. Guidelines for Surface Water Quality, I. Inorganic Chemical Substances. Chromium. Inland Waters Directorate, Water Quality Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
2815USEPA 1985. Health Effects Criteria Document for Chromium. USEPA Criteria and Standards Dividion (CSD), Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, D.C.
2744USEPA 1986a. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed. Reg. 51(185): 33992 - 34003, September 24.
2577WHO 1988. Chromium, Environmental Health Criteria 61, WHO, Geneva.

© Copyright Environmental Administration