Data bank of environmental chemicals     |     The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)


Data bank of environmental properties of chemicals

CAS-number :
Synonyms :
Sumformula of the chemical :
EINECS-number :
Uses :
Molecular weight :
Spesicif gravity (water=1) :
1.213  at 20/4 °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg :
0.17  at 20 °C, Piacente et al. 1985
Water solubility, mg/l :
8000  MITI 1992
3800  at 20 °C, Chiuo et al. 1982
Melting point, °C :
Boiling point, °C :
208  208 - 210, MITI 1992
Log octanol/water coefficient, log Pow :
1 - 9, Anon 1988
1.9  Hansch & Leo 1985
Henry's law constant, Pa x m3/mol :
0.32  Anon 1988
0.76  calc. Howard 1989
Volatilization :
The volatilition half-life of 2-chloroaniline from a
representative environmental pond (stagnant) has been estimated
to be 64 days (USEPA 1987).

Using th Henry's Law constant the volatilization half-life from
a model river (1 m deep) can be estimated to be 5.6 days
(Lyman et al. 1982).
Adsorption/desorption :
2-Chloroaniline has been observed to undergo rabid and
reversible covalent bonding with humic materials and clay in
water column and in the sediment (Howard 1989).
Mobility :
Equilibrium distribution:
        mass %
air      9.95
water   88.97
solid    1.08
(Anon 1988)
Other physicochemical properties :
Dissociation constant: 2.66 at 25 °C (Perrin 1972).
Photochemical degradation in air :
2-Chloroaniline absorbs ultraviolet light above 290 nm
indicating that direct environmental phtolysis is possible

The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-chloroaniline
with sunlight-produced hydroxyl radicals in a typical ambient
atmosphere has been estimated to be about 2 days cm3/mol-sec at
25 °C (GEMS 1987).
Photochemical degradation in water :
Irradiation of an aqueous solution of 2-chloroaniline in a
quartz tube with a fluorochemical lamp (wavelegths above 300
nm) resulted in a photodegradation half-life of 11.5 hours
(Kondo 1982).
Oxidation-reduction reactions :
Oxidation of aromatic amines can occur on clay surfaces, bur is
dependent on the exchangeable cationin the clay and the
presence of oxygen (USEPA 1987).
Total degradation in soil :
Decomposition by soil microflora: > 64 days (Verschueren 1983).

Incubation of 2-chloroaniline in soil for 14 days resulted in
formation of dichloroazobenzene, but no dichloroazobenzene was
formed using sterilized soil (Bartha et al. 1968).

When 2-chloroaniline was applied to soil there was an initial
rabid rate of dispappearance lasting 2 weeks followed by a much
more gradual rate of decline. 
The percentage of 2-chloroaniline
remaining after 2 and 10 weeks were 40 and 20, respectively.

While both chemical and biological processes are responsible
for the degradation. 
The chemical degradation is more
When 2-chloroaniline is released to soil, it will
undergo chemical bonding with humic materials, which can result
in its chemical alteration and prevent leaching (Howard 1989).
Total degradation in water :
2.7% by BOD
period: 14d
substance: 100 mg/l
sludge: 30 mg/l
(MITI 1992)

Results of standard biodegradtion tests for 2-chloroaniline
were reported as follows:
- Coupled units, 5-6% DOC removal
- Zahn-Wellens, 94% DOC removal
- Sturm 0% CO2 evolution, 9% DOC removal
- Closed bottle, 0% BODT
(Gerike & Fischer 1979).

A 36% BODT was measured for 2-chloroaniline over a 190 hr
incubation period with a Wasburg respirometer (Malaney 1960).
Ready biodegradability :
Confirmed to be non-biodegradable (Anon. 1987).
Other information of degradation :
Degradation by Aerobacter: 500 mg/l at 30 °C:
parent: 100 % ring disruption in 60 hr;
mutant: 100 % ring disruption in 18 hr (Verschueren 1983).

Various screening tests suggest that 2-chloroaniline is
generally resistant to biodegradation or biodegrades slowly.

Sigfinicant acclimation of microbes may be required for
biodegradation to become envirometally important (Howard 1989).
Bioconcentration factor, fishes :
5.4  5.4 - 9.0, 8w, Cyprinus carpio, conc 0.1 mg/l,
14  < 14 - 32, 8w, Cyprinus carpio, conc 0.01 mg/l,
32  MITI 1992
Other information of bioaccumulation :
Confirmed to be non-accumulative or low accumulative (Anon.

Log BCF of 2-chloroaniline in fish were experimentally
determined to be less than 2.0 using the Japanese MITI test
procedures (Kawasaki 1980).

2-Chloroaniline was found to have little or no bioconcentration
in carp (Sasaki 1978).

The log BCF of 2-chloroaniline has been theoretically estimatd
to be 1.3 (Canton et al. 1985).
LD50 values to birds in oral exposure, mg/kg :
100  100 - 562, orl-Agelaius phoeniceus
1000  =,>1000, Sturnus vulgaris
1000  =,>1000, Coturnix coturnix
  Schafer et al. 1983
LC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
6.2  14 d, Poelicia reticulata
  Hermens et al. 1985
6.3  48hr, Oryzias latipes, MITI 1992
5.68  96 hr, Pimephales promelas, Geiger et al. 1986
5.81  96 hr, Pimephales promelas, Brooke et al. 1984
EC50 values to fishes, mg/l :
5.68  96 hr, mbt, Pimephales promelas, Geiger et al. 1986
5.81  96 hr, mbt, Pimephales promelas, Brooke et al. 1984

2357Anon 1988. Concentrations of industrial organic chemicals measured in the environment: The influence of physico - chemical properties, tonnage and use pattern. Technical report no 29. European chemical industry ecology & toxicology centre, ECETOC. pp. 105.
1848Anon. 1987a. The list of the existing chemical substances tested on biodegradability by microorganisms or bioaccumulation in fish body by Chemicals Inspection & Testing Institute. Ministry of International Trade and Industry, MITI. Japan.
3224Bartha, R. et al. 1968. Science 16: 582 - 583.
3295Brooke, L. T. et al. 1984. Acute toxicities of organic chemicals to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas); Vol 1. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies University of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
3225Canton, J. H. et al. 1985. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 5: 123 - 131.
2612Chiou, C. T., Schmedding, D. W. and Manes, M. 1982. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16: 4 - 10.
3294Geiger, D. L. et al. 1986. Acute toxicities of organic chemicals to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) Vol. 3. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 328.
3133GEMS; 1986 -. Graphical Exposure Modeling System. FAP. Fate of Atmos Pollut.
3151Gerike, P. & Fischer, W. K. 1979. Ecotox. Environ. Safety 3:159-73.
2958Hansch, C and Leo, A. J. 1985. Medchem Project Issue No 26. Claremont C.A. Pomona College.
577Hermens, J., Leeuwangh, P. & Musch, A. 1985a. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Ecotox. Environm. Safety 9: 321 - 326.
3047Howard, P. H. 1989. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals. Vol. I: Large Production and Priority Pollutants. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea. pp 574.
2846Kawasaki, M. 1980. Experiences with the test scheme under the Chemical Control Law of Japan: An Approach to structure-activity correlations. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 4: 444 - 454.
3165Kondo, M. 1978. Simulation studies of degradation of chemicals in the environment: simulation studies of degradation of chemicals inthe water and soil; Environment agengy. Office of health studies Japan.
2960Lyman, W. J. et al. 1982. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Environmental behavior of organic compounds. McGraw-Hill New York.
3226Malaney, G. W. J. 1960. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 32: 1300 - 1311.
3105MITI 1992. Biodegradation and bioaccumulation data of existing chemicals based on the CSCL Japan. Compild under the Safety Division Basic Industries Bureau Ministry of International Trade & Industry, Japan. Edited by Chemicals Inspection & Testing Institute, Japan.
3173Perrin, D. D. 1972. Dissociation constants of organic bases in aqueous solution; IUPAC Chemical Data Series; Supplement; London Buttersworth.
3227Piacente, V. et al. 1985. J. Chem. Eng. Data 30: 372 - 376.
3228Sadtler. 254 UV Philadelphia, PA: SP Sadtler & Sons.
3053Sasaki, S. 1978. The Scientif Aspects of the Chemical Substance Control Law in Japan in Aquatic Pollutants Transformation and Biological Effects. Hutzinger, O. et al. (eds.) Oxford Pergamon Press. pp. 283 - 98.
1743Schafer , E.W.Jr., Bowles, W.A.Jr., Hurlbut, J. 1983. The acute oral toxicity, repellency and hazard potential of 993 chemicals to one or more species of wild and domestic birds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12: 355 - 382.
3229USEPA 1987. EXAMS II Computer Modeling System.
3230USEPA 1987. Health and Environmental Effects Document for Chloroanilines ECAO-CIN-G003 (Final Draft).
1468Verschueren, K. 1983. Handbook of environmental data of organic chemicals. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc., New York. 1310 s.

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